Project b3 Research Study – Session 2

This session covered both the “Epidemic of Epidemics” that we are facing (loneliness + mental wellness problems + obesity/diabetes = perfect storm), and the main topic of how “body” issues (weight, belly fat, metabolism) are related to “brain” issues (stress, depression, anxiety, cravings, willpower, motivation), and how those issues are related to “biome” issues (microbiome balance, gut integrity, etc).

Epidemic slides = Epidemic of Epidemics for Study

Body/Brain/Biome slides = Projectb3 Study Session 2 Body Brain Biome

Video of seminar (YouTube) = https://youtu.be/3piJMl7w694

 

Amare Mental Wellness in Nashville

View this email in your browser
Amare Global Logo (image)
Amare Winter Tour Header (image)
Nashville, We’ll See You Soon!
Date: Thursday, February 21
Time: 6 PM-9 PM
Location: Vanderbilt University Sarratt Student Center (216/220)
2301 Vanderbilt Place
Nashville, TN
Register Now
Your mental health is not just in your head ― it’s in your gut too! Join us at our Winter Rise Tour event to learn more!
We’ve developed the world’s first award-winning gut-brain axis nutrition system to help people optimize their mental wellness. Join us at one of the local events listed below to find out more and see how you can take yourself to a higher level of mental and physical performance.
Amare Event Benefits (image)
Featured Speaker
Dr. Shawn Talbott
Chief Science Officer
Founding Executive
6 PM-9 PM
Introduction to Amare

(Guests Welcome!)
Register Now
There is NO greater wealth than peace of mind!
Amare Global Logo (image)
Copyright © 2019 Amare Global, All rights reserved.
list is uploaded via api

Our mailing address is:

Amare Global

17872 Gillette Ave
Suite 100

Irvine, CA 92614

Honolulu Mental Wellness Events

I had the great pleasure last week to deliver several seminars and media events around Honolulu.

Every event educated about the new science around how the microbiome and the “second brain” in our gut modulates much of our Mental Wellness (and physical health).

We had packed rooms with standing-room-only attendance at every event – whether we were speaking to health professionals (3 events) or general audiences (3 events).

Here are the slides from the Health Professional events = Health Pro Short NAMI

Here are the slides from our event focused on Project b3 = Talbott LeadershipSummit_19

Here are the slides from our General Audience events = Talbott Honolulu Winter

Here is an interview that we did with ThinkTech Hawaii = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jksNkfyAZ0k&feature=youtu.be

Here is an interview that I did with KHON (Fox Channel 2) = https://www.khon2.com/news/local-news/wake-up-2day/health-tips-changing-the-biochemistry-of-our-bodies/1759971712

I hope you enjoy these and other educational resources on related science topics and at Amare.com

 

Exercise Prevents Depression

Original Investigation
January 23, 2019

Assessment of Bidirectional Relationships Between Physical Activity and Depression Among AdultsA 2-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study

JAMA Psychiatry. Published online January 23, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4175
editorial comment icon

Editorial

Comment
Key PointsQuestion  Does physical activity have a potential causal role in reducing risk for depression?

Findings  In this 2-sample mendelian randomization study using genetic instruments from large-scale genome-wide association studies to support potential causal inference, higher levels of physical activity (indexed by objective accelerometer data) were linked to reduced odds for major depression.

Meaning  Findings strengthen empirical support for physical activity as an effective prevention strategy for depression.

Abstract

Importance  Increasing evidence shows that physical activity is associated with reduced risk for depression, pointing to a potential modifiable target for prevention. However, the causality and direction of this association are not clear; physical activity may protect against depression, and/or depression may result in decreased physical activity.

Objective  To examine bidirectional relationships between physical activity and depression using a genetically informed method for assessing potential causal inference.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This 2-sample mendelian randomization (MR) used independent top genetic variants associated with 2 physical activity phenotypes—self-reported (n = 377 234) and objective accelerometer-based (n = 91 084)—and with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 143 265) as genetic instruments from the largest available, nonoverlapping genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS were previously conducted in diverse observational cohorts, including the UK Biobank (for physical activity) and participating studies in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (for MDD) among adults of European ancestry. Mendelian randomization estimates from each genetic instrument were combined using inverse variance weighted meta-analysis, with alternate methods (eg, weighted median, MR Egger, MR–Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier [PRESSO]) and multiple sensitivity analyses to assess horizontal pleiotropy and remove outliers. Data were analyzed from May 10 through July 31, 2018.

Main Outcomes and Measures  MDD and physical activity.

Results  GWAS summary data were available for a combined sample size of 611 583 adult participants. Mendelian randomization evidence suggested a protective relationship between accelerometer-based activity and MDD (odds ratio [OR], 0.74 for MDD per 1-SD increase in mean acceleration; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92; P = .006). In contrast, there was no statistically significant relationship between MDD and accelerometer-based activity (β = −0.08 in mean acceleration per MDD vs control status; 95% CI, −0.47 to 0.32; P = .70). Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between self-reported activity and MDD (OR, 1.28 for MDD per 1-SD increase in metabolic-equivalent minutes of reported moderate-to-vigorous activity; 95% CI, 0.57-3.37; P = .48), or between MDD and self-reported activity (β = 0.02 per MDD in standardized metabolic-equivalent minutes of reported moderate-to-vigorous activity per MDD vs control status; 95% CI, −0.008 to 0.05; P = .15).

Conclusions and Relevance  Using genetic instruments identified from large-scale GWAS, robust evidence supports a protective relationship between objectively assessed—but not self-reported—physical activity and the risk for MDD. Findings point to the importance of objective measurement of physical activity in epidemiologic studies of mental health and support the hypothesis that enhancing physical activity may be an effective prevention strategy for depression.

Introduction

Depression is a common psychiatric condition that represents a leading cause of disability worldwide.1 Despite this, efforts to prevent depression have been challenging, with few established protective factors, particularly modifiable targets for prevention. One promising target is physical activity, defined broadly as musculoskeletal movement resulting in energy expenditure.2 The relationship between physical activity and depression has received much attention in recent years. For example, meta-analytic data from randomized clinical trials3 have suggested that physical activity is linked to reduced depressive symptoms in at-risk populations, and prospective studies4,5 have demonstrated associations between higher levels of physical activity and decreased risk for later depression.

Although such findings point to a potential protective role of physical activity for depression, several questions remain. First, does physical activity causally influence risk for depression—or is this better explained by reverse causation? Some studies6,7 show that depression may also lead to reduced physical activity, but few studies have simultaneously tested both directional relationships. Second, does measurement of physical activity matter? Literature to date has relied mostly on self-reported measures of activity,5 which may be subject to confounding by participant mood, memory inaccuracy, and social desirability bias.8 Third, does the relationship between physical activity and depression persist when potential confounding is minimized? Although randomized clinical trials minimize confounding from unaccounted variables by design, they are intensive to conduct and have been of relatively limited size, with a mean of fewer than 60 participants per trial.3,9,10 More critically, randomized clinical trials have focused on treating symptoms in depressed individuals rather than testing preventive effects of physical activity on depression, which has population-wide implications but requires large samples unselected for depression. The most convincing evidence to date that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk for depression comes from meta-analyses of prospective studies,5which are high quality yet still limited by the breadth of behavioral, social, and genetic confounders that cannot be fully ruled out in observational designs.

Mendelian randomization (MR) is an alternative method for potential causal inference that treats genetic variation as a natural experiment in which individuals are essentially assigned to higher vs lower mean levels of a nongenetic exposure during their lifetime.11 Because genetic variants are considered to be allocated randomly before birth, they are relatively independent of environmental factors and established well before onset of disease, thereby minimizing issues of residual confounding and reverse causation that limit typical observational studies. If an exposure such as physical activity causally influences an outcome such as depression, then a variant that affects physical activity should be expected to influence depression to a proportional degree, provided no separate pathway exists by which this variant can affect depression, a phenomenon known as horizontal pleiotropy. Under these conditions, variants strongly associated with an exposure of interest may serve as proxies, or instruments, for estimating potential causal relationship with an outcome (Figure 1). In a 2-sample MR design, instruments can be extracted from summary statistics of large-scale, nonoverlapping genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which have recently become available for physical activity12 and major depressive disorder (MDD).13 Herein, we apply bidirectional MR to assess the potential causal relationship of physical activity with the risk for depression, and vice versa. Furthermore, we examine genetic instruments for physical activity assessed subjectively via self-report and objectively using wearable accelerometers.

TBI associated with PTSD and Depression

Even MILD traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with increased risk for PTSD and Depression…

Key PointsQuestion  Who is at greatest risk for developing mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depression after sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)?

Findings  In this cohort study of 1155 patients with mTBI and 230 patients with orthopedic injuries not involving the head, patients with mTBI were more likely to report PTSD and/or major depressive symptoms 3 and 6 months after injury. Among patients with mTBI, a number of preinjury (eg, prior mental health problems) and injury-related (eg, assault or other violent cause of injury in the case of PTSD) characteristics were associated with increased risk of mental health problems.

Meaning  Injury to the brain is associated with new onset or exacerbation of preexisting mental health problems in a substantial minority of patients; knowledge of risk factors can inform efforts at prevention, screening, diagnosis, and improved treatment.

Abstract

Importance  Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but little is known about factors that modify risk for these psychiatric sequelae, particularly in the civilian sector.

Objective  To ascertain prevalence of and risk factors for PTSD and MDD among patients evaluated in the emergency department for mild TBI (mTBI).

Design, Setting, and Participants  Prospective longitudinal cohort study (February 2014 to May 2018). Posttraumatic stress disorder and MDD symptoms were assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item. Risk factors evaluated included preinjury and injury characteristics. Propensity score weights-adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were performed to assess associations with PTSD and MDD. A total of 1155 patients with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score, 13-15) and 230 patients with nonhead orthopedic trauma injuries 17 years and older seen in 11 US hospitals with level 1 trauma centers were included in this study.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Probable PTSD (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5score, ≥33) and MDD (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item score, ≥15) at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury.

Results  Participants were 1155 patients (752 men [65.1%]; mean [SD] age, 40.5 [17.2] years) with mTBI and 230 patients (155 men [67.4%]; mean [SD] age, 40.4 [15.6] years) with nonhead orthopedic trauma injuries. Weights-adjusted prevalence of PTSD and/or MDD in the mTBI vs orthopedic trauma comparison groups at 3 months was 20.0% (SE, 1.4%) vs 8.7% (SE, 2.2%) (P < .001) and at 6 months was 21.2% (SE, 1.5%) vs 12.1% (SE, 3.2%) (P = .03). Risk factors for probable PTSD at 6 months after mTBI included less education (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97 per year), being black (adjusted odds ratio, 5.11; 95% CI, 2.89-9.05), self-reported psychiatric history (adjusted odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 2.09-6.09), and injury resulting from assault or other violence (adjusted odds ratio, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.56-7.54). Risk factors for probable MDD after mTBI were similar with the exception that cause of injury was not associated with increased risk.

Conclusions and Relevance  After mTBI, some individuals, on the basis of education, race/ethnicity, history of mental health problems, and cause of injury were at substantially increased risk of PTSD and/or MDD. These findings should influence recognition of at-risk individuals and inform efforts at surveillance, follow-up, and intervention.

Introduction

It has been commonly assumed, even among many health care professionals, that mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) virtually always resolve without sequelae.1 This assumption may contribute to these patients not receiving education about their injury at the time of injury and not receiving appropriate follow-up care after the acute injury.24 Whereas it is the case that symptoms in most patients with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 13 to 15 and negative computed tomography (CT) scan results do resolve in 1 to 3 months,3studies show that some patients have symptoms that persist for months beyond the acute injury.5,6 In nearly 25 000 nonmedically evacuated US soldiers returning from Afghanistan or Iraq between 2009 and 2014 and screened for mTBI, a substantial proportion (10%-30%) of those who screened positive had symptoms that persisted for at least 3 months postinjury.7 These and other data in civilians indicate that for many patients with mTBI, their course is not inevitably one of improvement.8,9

Mental health problems may be particularly salient features of nonrecovery from mTBI.1,10 In civilian patients hospitalized for an orthopedic injury, presence of comorbid mTBI was associated with an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression 3 to 6 months postinjury.11 Even among healthy young athletes, premorbid psychological factors have been found to be highly relevant to postconcussive recovery.12 Among 50 US soldiers with concussive blast traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) followed up for 1 to 5 years, many had posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depressive symptoms that worsened over time.13 Preexisting mental disorder14 and mental health sequelae have been shown to be important determinants of overall functioning and quality of life after mTBI.1518 In US Army soldiers, deployment-related mTBI was associated with an increased risk for subsequent PTSD, as well as for major depressive disorder (MDD).19

Although MDD and PTSD are prevalent after TBI, little is known about which patients are at risk for developing them. In a study of 559 civilians consecutively admitted to a level 1 trauma center with TBI, preinjury history of MDD was associated with an increased risk for MDD.20 A retrospective review of medical records from 276 service members assigned to the United States Army Special Operations Command referred for mTBI evaluation found that premorbid PTS symptoms were associated with an increased risk for PTSD following a subsequent mTBI.21 In a 2017 systematic review of 26 observational studies of TBI, the authors found that female sex and preinjury depressive symptoms were predictive of MDD, whereas memory of the traumatic events and early PTS symptoms were predictive of PTSD.22

Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that mental health problems are common following a “mild” TBI and that there may be individual-specific and injury-specific factors that influence risk for these disorders. We hypothesized that factors (eg, antecedent mental disorder, prior TBI, cause of injury)23,24 observed in prior studies to increase risk for mental health and/or postconcussive symptoms, which are known to overlap with depressive and PTS symptoms,25,26 in patients with TBI would be predictive of PTSD and MDD status at 6 months postinjury, with similar risk factors observed at 3 and 12 months. To our knowledge, few studies have been designed and powered to ascertain prevalence of PTSD and MDD and examine hypothesized risk factors in a large, prospective longitudinal study of nonmilitary personnel. Given substantial differences in the nature and context of the injuries and postinjury circumstances of military and civilian personnel sustaining mTBIs,27 additional focus on these factors in a civilian cohort is needed.

Probiotic and Prebiotic Specificity

I was in Southern Utah for. triathlon camp this week – and our run went a little long…

So…you’ll see that I did this Deep Dive from the middle of a city park in St. George Utah (thank goodness for free public wifi)! 😂

Here is what we talked about = the health benefits of probiotics are dependent on the specific STRAIN of bacteria – and the health benefits of prebiotic fibers are dependent on the specific STRUCTURE of the fiber.

This is why some probiotic/prebiotic supplements can help with depression, anxiety, and stress – while others only support general gut health.

Video on YouTube

Slides = Deep Dive Probiotic Strain Specificity

 

Eating for a Healthy Heart

February is National Heart Month – so I visited KUTV’s Fresh Living to talk about my favorite foods and supplements for bolstering heart health. See the segment HERE.

Unknown.jpeg

Choosing the right foods can improve heart health by lowering inflammation, reducing cholesterol, improving blood flow, and boosting energy levels.

Healthy fats can help reduce inflammation (fish, nuts, seeds) – and when you can’t eat enough servings of FATTY fish (salmon, trout, tuna, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, bluefish, etc), then you can supplement with a high-purity high-potency fish oil product like OmMega.

Brightly-colored fruits can help protect heart cells from oxidation (berries, citrus, peppers) – and when you can’t eat enough fresh fruits/veggies, you can get the phytonutrients from 3-servings of fruits/veggies in one serving of GBX SuperFood.

Beans and nuts provide fiber that can help reduce blood sugar levels and reduce cholesterol levels – and when you can’t eat enough of these foods, you can get more fiber and phytonutrients from GBX SeedFiber.

Running Away from SAD (seasonal affective disorder)

Here is a nice piece from Runner’s World where I talk a little about how running (and really any exercise) can help improve neurotransmitter balance and boost mood.

I incorporate precisely this thinking into the Project b3 Program that we recently launched at Amare.

Read the original article at RW – or the pasted version below.

Fight Seasonal Affective Disorder With Winter Running

Though lack of sunlight may be causing you to feel “winter blues,” exercise is proven to help boost your mood.

Hispanic woman jogging on snow covered road

GETTY IMAGESJACOBS STOCK PHOTOGRAPHY LTD

If the drab weather seems to be affecting your mood, you’re not alone. And, if you tend to feel those “winter blues” year after year, you may be experiencing seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

According to the Cleveland Clinic, SAD is “a depression that occurs each year at the same time, usually starting in fall, worsening in winter, and ending in spring. It is more than just the ‘winter blues’ or ‘cabin fever.’”

Even for normally cheerful runners, these feelings can be common when temperatures drop and you get less exposure to the sun. Although this gloomy state of mind is less severe than SAD, which is a clinical mood disorder, it can still throw you—and your running—into a funk, says John Martinez, M.D., a Woodland, California-based urgent care physician at Dignity Health Medical Foundation.

Fortunately, if you do get moving, research shows that you can outrun those seasonal blahs. While the first few miles may be tough, you are setting yourself to hit those runner highs before spring even arrives if you avoid hibernating and hit the roads (or treadmill). Here’s what you need to know to fight SAD for good.

Lace up for 30 Minutes

It’s simple logic: When you run, you feel good, and you keep at it. When you don’t run, it becomes more difficult to start back up again. The cause behind this phenomenon is simple brain chemistry, says Shawn Talbott, Ph.D., a nutritional biochemist who has completed more than 100 marathons and triathlons.

Exercising for about 30 minutes, three to five times a week, can help relieve depression symptoms, according to the Mayo Clinic. Good news for runners: more vigorous activities (running) may take less time to improve your mood. According to Harvard Health, starting an exercise routine you can maintain—even just getting moving for a few minutes a day—can help improve mood and relieve depression.

Supplement Your Sun

Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin that your skin produces when exposed to sunlight, is more than just a vitamin. It acts like a hormone, which means it affects every tissue in the body, Martinez says.

Plus, research shows that higher levels of vitamin D may lead to lower depressive symptoms. Vitamin D deficiency may cause run-thwarting depression and fatigue, as well as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis.

“You’ll produce up to 20,000 International Units (IU) of vitamin D by being in the sun between the hours of 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. in the summer,” Martinez says. But in the winter, leaving for work and returning home in the dark means less of this vital vitamin.

Recommended amounts of skin exposure to the sun vary by factors such as skin type, where you live, and season, according to the Vitamin D Council. If you can, get outside during your lunch break—even for just a 10- to 15-minute walk. But in places like Boston, Salt Lake City, or Seattle, exposure to solar ultraviolet rays isn’t strong enough in winter to fuel vitamin D production in skin. In this case, popping a vitamin D supplement in winter can help you avoid deficiencies since you aren’t getting enough naturally.

And diet won’t fill the gap, either, Martinez says. You’ll only get about 120 IU from a glass of fortified milk and an average of around 500 IU from a 3.5 oz serving of salmon, depending on preparation. (For reference: The National Institutes of Health’s recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D is 600 IU of vitamin D daily for adults under 70 and 800 IUs for those over 70.) If you’re feeling depression and fatigue, check with your doctor about adding or increasing your vitamin D supplement.

Maintain Balance

When we’re stressed from missing runs, our cortisol levels increase. Elevated levels of this hormone cause a domino effect in the body, reducing testosterone and interfering with brain neurotransmitter function, resulting in decreased motivation, fatigue, anxiety, and depression.

Luckily, running acts as a natural de-stressor, clearing excess cortisol, bringing testosterone levels back to normal, and rebalancing norepinephrine (a stress hormone), dopamine, and serotonin (feel-good hormones) in the brain.

Check in With Yourself

Do you usually prefer group runs and find yourself making excuses to ditch your training crew or run solo? It may be a result of SAD, especially if you’re experiencing other symptoms of it.

Light therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or prescribed antidepressants are common treatments if you see a doctor, according to the Cleveland Clinic. (However, if solo miles are always your thing, keep pounding away to keep the winter blues at bay.)

Reframe Your Training

Winter running brings more contingencies to deal with. In order to avoid missing workouts, Sharon Chirban, Ph.D., a Boston-based sports psychologist, recommends having a plan B. You’re usually a morning runner, but the predawn thermometer is stuck at zero—be willing to run in the afternoon instead. If the street is an ice rink, head to the gym and hit the treadmill.

“The key to maintaining a winter routine is mental flexibility,” she says. “It’s essential to have the ability to reframe your workout in order to avoid ditching it.”

The more ways you can keep yourself from quitting or giving in, the easier it will be to stick with a plan.

Find Your Winter Rhythm

The seasons have a biological rhythm, so the way you run in the winter will not be the same way you run in the spring, Chirban says.

“Letting ourselves back off in winter can be restoring.” There is a value in slowing down, as well as in recovery. Substitute a yoga class for one of your weekly runs. Or, cut back your outdoor mileage and add in strength training. There’s also a benefit to embracing what makes winter unique. Immerse yourself in the season—gearing up for a run in the cold, taking on a man-versus-nature mentality can be exciting and rejuvenating, Chirban says.

Try switching things up. “When you hike or snowshoe a snow-covered trail that you usually run, it brings about a fresh perspective,” she says. “If you can find a way to work with winter, not against it, in your training, you’re setting yourself up for a powerful start to the spring running season.”

HIIT is effective and “do-able” for most…

Very nice commentary on a recent study published last year showing that HIIT (high-intensity interval training) – the type of exercise that we recommend as part of the Project b3 Program is not only very effective – but also very easy to adhere to for most people. Read the original article here.

Active Voice: Adherence to HIIT in Free-Living Conditions – Mounting Evidence of Its Potential as a Viable Exercise Option

By Mary E. Jung, Ph.D., and Sean R. Locke, Ph.D.

Viewpoints presented in SMB commentaries reflect opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent positions or policies of ACSM.

Mary Jung, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the School of Health and Exercise Sciences at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Okanagan Campus in Kelowna, BC. Dr. Jung is a Michael Smith Foundation for Health research scholar and a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Early Career Foundation grant recipient. Her overarching research interests lie in self-regulation of health behaviors, with focus on exercise adherence for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. She directs the Diabetes Prevention Research Group at UBC Okanagan. Dr. Jung also is a member of ACSM.

Sean Locke, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Health and Exercise Sciences at the University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus. Dr. Locke is a Diabetes Canada postdoctoral fellow and Michael Smith Foundation for Health research postdoctoral fellow recipient. His research broadly examines techniques for optimizing health behavior interventions. More specifically, he examines counseling methods for modifying the unhelpful lens through which some view diet and exercise.

This commentary presents Dr. Jung’s and Dr. Locke’s views on the topic of the research article they co-authored with other colleagues. Their article appeared in the October 2018 issue of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise® (MSSE).

There’s no denying that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemic associated with tremendous societal, economic and personal costs. Significant efforts are being made to identify individuals at high risk of T2D and mitigate that risk. Regular physical activity, along with a healthy diet, have been shown to prevent or delay the onset of T2D, yet very few adults maintain enough regular physical activity to reduce the risk of developing T2D.

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has consistently been shown to lead to cardiometabolic improvements that are equal to, if not superior to, results achieved through moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Thus, HIIT may be a viable option for T2D risk reduction. Despite the appealing time-efficient nature of HIIT and the associated positive health adaptations, the utilization of HIIT as a public health strategy is not without its critics. Opponents argue that HIIT is inappropriate for adults who are sedentary or those at increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, some opponents criticize HIIT for being too intense and leading individuals to feelings of negative affect that will undermine competence and adherence.

However, recent research has cast doubt on critics’ arguments. For example, inactive adults have reported comparable exercise enjoyment and confidence about their willingness to engage in both HIIT and MICT after completing a single bout of HIIT. A recent scoping review comparing HIIT and MICT also has concluded that HIIT is a viable exercise option.

HIIT, in short, is repeated bouts of vigorous intensity exercise separated by periods of active recovery at low intensities. HIIT can be performed without specialized equipment and does not require extensive recovery between intervals. Home-based prescriptions are simple to remember and administer, e.g., “one-minute on, one-minute off” or “power walk to the lamppost, then walk casually to the next lamppost.”

The primary purpose of our study, as described in the October 2018 issue of MSSE, was to pilot test the Small Steps for Big Changes intervention framework for lowering T2D risk factors. Our aim was to examine the impact of HIIT versus MICT for promoting physical activity adherence 24 weeks following the exercise intervention. We hypothesized that exposure to HIIT would lead to greater objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) behavior 24-weeks post-intervention, when compared to MICT. A secondary purpose was to examine the differential impact of engaging in HIIT or MICT on cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes.

We randomized 32 low-active adults at elevated risk for developing T2D to HIIT (n=15) or MICT (n=17) conditions. The brief, low-cost intervention consisted of seven exercise sessions accompanied by 10 minutes of counseling at each supervised session, over a two-week period. We designed the counseling sessions to leverage the power of evidence-based behavior- change techniques known to promote physical activity engagement and self-management in this population.

Twenty-four weeks following the two-week intervention, those randomized to HIIT increased their MVPA by 53 minutes compared to an increase of 19 minutes for those in MICT. Greater increases in cardiorespiratory fitness were observed for those in the HIIT group. Both groups increased their self-efficacy to engage in and manage their exercise following the intervention; however, these levels returned to baseline 24 weeks later.

The magnitude of effects observed in this study provide enough justification for conducting a fully powered randomized control trial with a long-term follow-up period to examine the impact of the Small Steps for Big Changes intervention on clinically meaningful endpoints for T2D risk reduction, e.g., HbA1c.

This study adds to the mounting evidence suggesting that individuals can and do adhere to HIIT, making it a viable option for disease prevention and health promotion.

Amare Mental Wellness in NYC – Jan 24

Amare Global Logo (image)
Amare Winter Tour Header (image)
New York, We’ll See You Soon!
Date: Thursday, January 24
Time: 7 PM-9 PM
Location: W New York Union Square
201 Park Ave S
New York, NY
Register Now
Your mental health is not just in your head ― it’s in your gut too! Join us at our Winter Rise Tour event to learn more!
We’ve developed the world’s first award-winning gut-brain axis nutrition system to help people optimize their mental wellness. Join us at one of the local events listed below to find out more and see how you can take yourself to a higher level of mental and physical performance.
Amare Event Benefits (image)
Featured Speaker
Dr. Shawn Talbott
Chief Science Officer
Founding Executive
7 PM-9 PM
Introduction to Amare

(Guests Welcome!)
Register Now
There is NO greater wealth than peace of mind!
Amare Global Logo (image)
Copyright © 2019 Amare Global, All rights reserved.
list is uploaded via api

Our mailing address is:

Amare Global

17872 Gillette Ave
Suite 100

Irvine, CA 92614